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Lizamoon SQL Injection Campaign Compared

Malware infections such as SQL injection are a well known security problem. Over the past two years we have seen several large-scale infections on the web, e.g. Gumblar.cn and Martuz.cn. Recently, a new SQL injection campaign called Lizamoon has gained a lot of attention. I had expected web sites would become more secure over time and less susceptible to simple security problems, so it is surprising that SQL injection is still a prevalent problem. That let me to wonder: Was Lizamoon as successful as previous infections? In a discussion about this problem, my colleague Panayiotis Mavrommatis suggested that comparing the size of campaigns via search engine result estimates might not be very accurate measurement.

That begs the question of how to assess the impact of infections. While the number of infected URLs is one possible measure, it is skewed by many different factors, e.g. a single vulnerable site contributes a large fraction of the infected URLs and overstates the impact. Instead, counting the number of infected sites might be a better metric. Even so, to judge the relative scale of an infection campaign, it might be helpful to compare it to previous incidents.

Below is a comparison of the Gumblar.cn/, Martuz.cn/ and Lizamoon infections based on Google's Safe Browsing data. The graph shows the number of unique infected sites over a 30 day sliding window.

For this analysis, I counted the sites that had a functioning reference to it, e.g. a script src=. Sites that escaped the script tag rendering it harmless were not counted. For Lizamoon, I aggregated the sites provided by the websense blog into a single measure:

hxxp://lizamoon.com/
hxxp://tadygus.com/
hxxp://alexblane.com/
hxxp://alisa-carter.com/
hxxp://online-stats201.info/
hxxp://stats-master111.info/
hxxp://agasi-story.info/
hxxp://general-st.info/
hxxp://extra-service.info/
hxxp://t6ryt56.info/
hxxp://sol-stats.info/
hxxp://google-stats49.info/
hxxp://google-stats45.info/
hxxp://google-stats50.info/
hxxp://stats-master88.info/
hxxp://eva-marine.info/
hxxp://stats-master99.info/
hxxp://worid-of-books.com/
hxxp://google-server43.info/
hxxp://tzv-stats.info/
hxxp://milapop.com/
hxxp://pop-stats.info/
hxxp://star-stats.info/
hxxp://multi-stats.info/
hxxp://google-stats44.info/
hxxp://books-loader.info/
hxxp://google-stats73.info/
hxxp://google-stats47.info/
hxxp://google-stats50.info/

The graph shows two interesting facts.
  • The Lizamoon campaign started around September 2010 and actually peaked in October 2010 with ~5600 infected sites. At the moment, it seems to be undergoing a revival.
  • If we compare the number of infected sites, Gumblar.cn/ is still clearly the winner with ~62,000 sites, followed closely by Martuz.cn/.
For future studies of malware infections, I suggest taking the number of infected sites as a more reliable measure than counting the number of infected URLs.

Update 2011-04-04:
The blog post incorrectly referred to Gumblar.cn and Martuz.cn/ as SQL injection attacks. These attacks used stolen FTP credentials.
Categories: Hacking, Malware, News, Security, SpyBye
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Adobe PDF Vulnerability: Stack overflow in Font File parsing

Metasploit has a great write up on new vulnerability in PDF. The basic problem is a stack overflow when parsing OpenType fonts. In particular, SING Glyphlet tables contain a 27 byte long unique name that is expected to be NUL-terminated and stored in a 28-byte buffer. The vulnerable code is using strcat and lacks bounds checking resulting in a stack overflow.

The PDF in the wild prepares the heap via Javascript and contains multiple different font files that are selected by navigating to a specific page in the PDF based on the viewer version. Each font files has slightly different shell code. It was amusing to see that the attackers after modifying the head and SING tables did not fix up their respective checksums. According to Metasploit, this exploit works under Windows 7 with both DEP and ASLR turned on. Fun Fun. As of now, no patched version is available. The SecBrowsing blog contains instructions with temporary remedies.
Categories: Malware, News, SpyBye
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LEET '10 Call for Papers

The call for papers for the 3rd USENIX Workshop on Large-Scale Exploits and Emergent Threats (LEET '10) Botnets, Spyware, Worms, and More just went out. It will be held on April 27, 2010 in San Jose, CA.

LEET '10 will be co-located with the 7th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI '10), which will take place April 28–30, 2010.

Important Dates
  • Submissions due: Thursday, February 25, 2010, 11:59 p.m. PST
  • Notification of acceptance: Wednesday, March 24, 2010
  • Final papers due: Monday, April 5, 2010

Workshop Organizers
Program Chair
  • Michael Bailey, University of Michigan
Program Committee
  • Dan Boneh, Stanford University
  • Nick Feamster, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • Jaeyeon Jung, Intel Labs, Seattle
  • Christian Kreibich, International Computer Science Institute
  • Patrick McDaniel, Pennsylvania State University
  • Fabian Monrose, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
  • Jose Nazario, Arbor Networks, Inc.
  • Stefan Savage, University of California, San Diego
  • Matt Williamson, AVG Technologies
  • Yinglian Xie, Microsoft Research
  • Vinod Yegneswaran, SRI International

Go submit your work!
Categories: Malware, News, Security, SpyBye, Systrace
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Ask Google's Anti-Malware Team

Google's Anti-Malware team has prepared a moderator page where web masters and users can ask questions and vote which questions they would like to see answered. The voting period ends on Friday, August 28th at which point the Anti-Malware team will prepare answers for some of the top-rated questions.
Categories: Malware, News, SpyBye
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DirectShow Vulnerability Exploited Everywhere

The DirectShow vulnerabilities are being exploited all over the place now. Unfortunately, the second vulnerability in DirectShow is still unpatched and exploit sites seem to be jumping on this. There is even some evidence that it's possible to successfully exploit the vulnerability without even using JavaScript. New exploit domains are popping after every day. DirectShow now seems to be what Flash and PDF were earlier in the year.
Categories: Malware, Security, SpyBye
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Cybercrime 2.0: When the Cloud Turns Dark

We recently published an article on web-based malware in ACM's Queue Magazine. It provides a short overview of some of the challenges with detecting malicious web sites such as social engineering and examples of techniques for compromising web sites, e.g. htaccess redirection on Apache, etc. This is the article on which my recent ISSNet talk was based.
Categories: Malware, Security, SpyBye
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